Word count by genre: How long should my book really be?

Publishers and agents are typically inundated with manuscript submissions from authors seeking publication. And as a result, ‘the authorities’ (as I shall hereby refer to them as) are looking for reasons to reject your book. The standouts are standouts, and speak for themselves. But for every standout manuscript there are hundreds of manuscripts that are hard to place – could they be best sellers if they found the right audience? More often than not they are looking for reasons why these manuscripts shouldn’t make their lists. And scrutinising the word count is one such method of reducing their ‘slush pile’.

‘The authorities’ ask for a list of details in your cover (query) letter for a reason, it is their way of determining your understanding of your own work, the market, your competition etc. They want you to make their jobs as easy as possible – not because they are lazy, but simply overwhelmed. They need reasons to throw your manuscript in the bin and move onto the next one – and it’s not because they are horrible people who want to force people to ‘fail’, it comes down to time pressures really.

They also are looking for ammunition to take into ‘the pitch’ meetings, where they know if they are not prepared, then it will be a bloodbath. The truth is that, even if they love your manuscript and believe in it, they still need to convince ‘the suits’ (aka the sales and marketing department). ‘The authorities’ know that by pitching a manuscript that comfortably fits into a saleable category they have a much better chance of ‘selling’ your book to ‘the suits’.

Word count comes into this overall equation. Most literary genres have expected word lengths, which have been driven by audiences – in terms of their own expectations of the genre, as well as our (the professionals) expectations of them (an obvious example for this: children’s books need to be shorter than science-fiction for adults, simply because children don’t have the attention span that adults possess).

Adhering to the expected word count demonstrates that you understand your market. It also shows that you have the ability to pace your narrative and make every word count (that you are disciplined at self-editing).

Publishing realities such as ‘production costs’ are another reason that ‘the authorities’ need you to respect word count expectations. The greater the word count = the larger the book = more sections and pages that are required to be printed = upping the price of your book once it hits the shelves. And why would a publisher want to spend more on producing a book and then taking the risk of selling it at a higher price point than they have to? Ultimately, if they have five other books in your genre that are ‘as good as’ your book then what would persuade them to publish yours? It would have to be pretty darn good to demand a higher sales price point and the chance of losing sales to a cheaper book in the same genre.

Now, this doesn’t mean that you have to compromise your manuscript and make it homogeneous, however by trying to tick a few boxes it might well help you find publication. And keep in mind that although there are always exceptions to the rule…don’t count on it that you are that exception.

So, with the above in mind, here is a rough guide for expected word lengths for adult fiction. (You can read more about Children’s Fiction HERE.)

Here are the general figures that you’ll want to know:

    • Under 500 words can be described as ‘Flash Fiction’
    • Between 1000 and 8000 words is a short story (also, most short story competitions will stipulate their required word length for entry)
    • Between 5000 and 10,000 words is a long short story
  • NOVELLA: This is a story that is between 10,000 and 40,000 words.
  • NOVEL: A manuscript over 40,000 words is considered to be a novel. However, very few novels these days are as short as that. Generally a 50,000-word novel would be the minimum word count. Most novels are between 60,000 and 100,000 words. A single novel can be longer, but once the length is above 110,000 words publishers may look at cutting it back, unless it is a particular kind of book – books over the 110K word count are usually considered ‘epics’. Here are some of the genres in a little more detail:
    • Adult fiction (commercial and literary): usually fall between 80,000-100,000 words. Dropping below this figure is passable, however not by too much. Exceeding the 100K word count by too much could make the book more expensive to produce – the story would have to be really worth it for a publisher to want to fork out more money than necessary on production!
    • Science and fantasy fiction: are the exceptions to the ‘word-limit’ rule, but even so they don’t usually exceed 150,000 words (and usually fall within the 90,000-120,000 range). The reason they are the exception? Audiences of this genre are happy to read epic novels, they expect it to take time to build the fantasy world around them and want to immerse themselves into that world for some time. Publishers and agents know this and as a result they are willing to show more leniency when it comes to word limits, so you are less likely to lose out on a deal due to word count for this genre.
    • Romance novels: 50,000-100,000…this is a fairly vast bracket thanks to all the sub-genres that can be found in this category (think Regency, contemporary, historical, paranormal, erotic…even chick lit). Aim for somewhere in the middle and you should be pretty safe – when writing your romance novel, consider your reader: where and how will they be reading your book? On the plane, by the pool, on the commute to work? What do you think they want out of the book – is it that they want a quick, light-hearted read, or an epic love story? This will have an impact on where you take your word count. This can be applied across all the genres really.
    • Historical fiction: Similar to sci-fi and fantasy-fiction, you are creating a world for your contemporary audience – you need to make this real and believable for them…but not dull and lifeless. Too much information and your novel could be at risk of being boring, too little information and you will find it difficult to place your audience in the time period. Aim for the 100,000-word mark in order to offer up something that is rich in detail, but not tedious to read.
    • Crime/Mysteries/Thrillers/Horror fiction: All these categories have one major thing in common: suspense. Any book that falls into this category needs to be a real page-turner. Too many words and you risk losing your audience, too few and they might feel like they missed something. So it is advisable to follow the guidelines on word length for this category. Generally speaking a 70,000-90,000-word count is a comfortable range. Publishers and agents expect that authors in this genre will understand how to be ruthless with their words in order to keep their narrative on-track and moving at an engaging pace – lengthy descriptions tend to be like a needle to a balloon…it pops the crucial tension that you have spent so long ‘blowing up’.
    • Young adult fiction: Although we covered this to some degree in our Publishing: Children’s Books Explained article, there is a little more to YA than meets the eye. This category has an ‘expected’ word count of around 50,000-80,000…however there is a little flexibility here, due to the sub-genres found in YA. For instance a sci-fi YA title could be expected to be a little longer due to the world-building requirements and also the expectations of the reader for this genre. But general YA titles should always keep in mind the age of their targeted audience and realistically consider their attention-span to an ‘epic’ versus something they can read comfortably before moving onto their next book ‘conquest’.
    • Children’s fiction: see more in my Publishing: Children’s Books Explained article.
    • Non-fiction: I really should break this category down into sub-heads such as: memoir, history, photography, reference, design, novelty… the list goes on. And for this reason, it is almost impossible to place a word restriction on non-fiction titles. Many books in the non-fiction category are also ‘acquired’ on concept alone, rather than a completed manuscript. If you have written a non-fiction book and want to know if you are hitting the word-count ‘sweet spot’, I suggest reading widely in your area to see what others are doing – this will give you a better sense of what publishers (and readers) expect/want.



Always keep in mind that each story has its own natural length, which may fall outside these guidelines. If this is the case, just be prepared to ‘justify’ your reasons for falling outside the ‘norm’…always keep in mind, you are selling this to the agent/publisher/commissioning editor in the first instance, but then they have to sell it to the sales and marketing team (which can be a particularly hard sell! You can emotionally trap the creative team more than you can ‘the suits’…they want numbers and figures and hard facts. And at the end of the day, they have a lot of power, so it is important to keep both these audiences in mind when you are ‘selling’ your book).

And as I have already said: there are always exceptions to rules, but in the current publishing climate it pays to expect to be the rule, rather than the exception.

About Kit Carstairs

Kit Carstairs has background in book and magazine publishing, academic research, marketing and broadcasting. She has almost a decade of experience working with a wide variety of content including: fiction (adult and children’s), general non-fiction (craft, gardening, home improvement, general DIY, food titles, natural history, general reference, photography) as well as working with corporate (marketing and sales material, business reviews and papers) and academic content (research publications and thesis). Having worked both as a freelance editor and as an in-house editor and project manager in publishing, Kit has a comprehensive understanding of the importance of content development and the need for authors to be proactive in developing manuscripts that represent their full potential. As well as providing manuscript assessments Kit is also able to offer her editing and proofing services (POA) as well as fast and accurate transcribing services (POA). Contact Kit to discuss these services in more detail. Kit lives and works in the inspirational surroundings of the Blue Mountains, in Australia's New South Wales.



Word count by genre: How long should my book really be? — 69 Comments

  1. Pingback: The Start – Jenny Gilbert

    • I wish I could answer this in one neat line. But it is a huge question to ask. The best place to start is with passion, write that book that you have been itching to write. Do it because you love to write. Focus on making that book the best it can be – this means self-editing, writing several drafts, and employing professional editors to help. Only then should you even start to think about publishing and the hurdles you might face! Good luck!

    • The construct of your question reflects the likelihood English is not your native tongue. I suggest a pre-submission review of your query letter and manuscript by someone with both command of proper English and familiarity with contextual language if you want to avoid native English-speaking “authorities” and “suits” prematurely dismissing your efforts. The needed investment of time to guestimate word count of your manuscript and to anticipate the cost of post-acceptance editing prior to doing so may be sufficient cause to remove your manuscript from further consideration.

  2. Thank you SO much for this article!! I recently completed my first manuscript, which ended up being just under 130,000 words. O_o I’m thinking of breaking it down into a two separate books (would a pre-written sequel act as a selling point, do you think?) If not, I have some SERIOUS editing to do, lol. Thank you again for your guidance!! It is very much appreciated!! ^_^

    • Publishing houses are always looking at investing in authors who have more than just one book up their sleeve, so a pre-written sequel (or series of books) is definitely a value-add. I am so happy you found value in our article 🙂 Thanks for your feedback! Good luck with the rewrites!!

  3. I have just finished writing the first of, hopefully, five sci-fi novels in the same series. The first book, on Word 2016, is 134 pages with the Table of Contents and the chapters, but that would probably fall under the Novella. I might want to use The Manuscript Agency for review and publishing.

  4. How would you typically submit a manuscript? I’m in the process of writing my first novel and when the time comes I don’t even know where to start.

    • Hi April, It is a tricky question (which I am currently writing a blog about!). I would focus on the manuscript in the first instance, making sure that you have done all that you can to make it a great read (services like ours are helpful in this process). Then it is a matter of sitting down and pondering a few questions, i.e.:
      – Would I like to publishing traditionally or self-publish?
      – Do I want to work with an agent or go direct to a publisher? (This opens up a lot of questions in itself!)
      – What is the genre of your manuscript?

      The answers to these questions all lead you down different paths. I wish I could offer a more definitive response, but there just isn’t one…well, not a short one at least! I would be happy to chat with you more when you are nearing the time where you want to seek publication, just shoot me an email or give me a call.

      Happy writing!!

  5. Hi, I have a few different questions.

    First, the one that’s been on my mind the most. I’m currently writing a story that, as I’m writing, I consider a full length book once I finish it. Obviously that’s only my mindset and there are actual guidelines to how long certain types of stories are (as your article explains). I’m currently at about 32,500 words and almost 10 chapters, but the story is 3/4 of the way done. It’s an adventure/fantasy story, geared toward teens/young adults. I’ve mostly been writing it for a middle to high school level audience. I’m estimating that I’ll have around 40-45,000 words once I’m through. Is this a realistic/proper length for a story like this?

    Second, I’ve written a couple short stories, both finished, and I was wondering what the market for these types of stories is like. I suppose this is a more broad question than specific to my story, but would a short story realistically do well in selling, assuming that it was well written and interesting? How would you go about publishing something roughly 10,000 words?

    My third question, which might need a bit more explaining, has to do with copyright laws. Say that a person writes a song. After you listen to it, a vague idea of a story comes to mind (note: not that the lyrics tell a story, but meanings conveyed through the song inspire a possible backstory to it). If you were to write a story, completely separate from the song and anyone possibly related to the song, but the song itself was your initial inspiration, would this be considered infringement of the song writer’s intellectual property?

    • Hi Kitty,

      Thanks for your queries! I will do my best to provide you with some responses.

      Firstly, I wouldn’t worry about the word count until you have a completed manuscript. Once you have the framework complete then you will see areas that need fleshing out in your editing process. The first draft is usually just a matter of getting the words on the page. Once you have that structure and the editing commences then you will probably see that a lot will change. Writing fantasy/adventure for that age group is an interesting one. On the one hand, they are a younger audience and so you have to consider their attention span/focus/engagement. On the other hand, readers of that genre tend to become more invested and expect a higher word count as world-building usually accounts for a lot more content than ‘normal fiction’. Although you are targeting the YA audience this genre tends to hook a wider age range of readers, it is worth keeping this in the back of your mind also.

      Short stories are a tricky market in that there isn’t really one. Writing competitions and anthologies are a good place to target for short stories.

      In terms of copyright, I wouldn’t even begin to advise you on this, I have general knowledge about these things, but when in doubt I will always refer to a lawyer. What I would say is that inspiration comes in all forms and if it is merely inspiration and not reflection then I would think you would be okay, but you are still best to seek professional advice.

      I hope these responses have been helpful!


    • I’m going to answer these out of order. I know this isn’t my blog but I write short stuff so I’m inclined to leave some little tidbits of information. Hopefully Kit doesn’t mind. I will be disagreeing with Kit on a few of these.

      2. There are short markets EVERYWHERE if you know where to look. But the marketing is generally different. Fiction magazines, both online and print, take stories from 100 words to 30,000, and they can pay anywhere from 5 cents to $1.00 per word. It’s a one-time check, and they will ask that you don’t republish the work for 6 months to a year. Get in enough of these magazines, and you have the makings of your own anthology with lots of writing credits. Non-fiction can pay even higher, but thats another discussion. There are also publishing houses, not the big 6, that are on the lookout specifically for anthology works. Websites are hungry for new content. And at the end of the day, there’s a whole market on Kindle for short 99cent e-books. I’m currently editing a short piece which I’m hoping to get pubbed in Clarkesworld Magazine. (They pay 10 cents per word, btw) If you want to find these markets, don’t look for publishing opportunities. Search like a reader looking for short stories or flash fiction. Then find the submission page.

      3. No. As long as you don’t steal the song, re-use the lyrics, or whatever, you’re safe. There’s no copyright on inspiration. If I’m inspired by a coke can rolling down the street and write a story, I don’t have to pay Coca-Cola anything, and I probably won’t even mention them in the story.

      1. Finish the draft first, then worry about word count. 40-45 is okay for YA books by most standards, but when you go back to edit, that count should change. Weaving another character or sub-plot into the story is going to make it longer, and trust me, by the 5th or 6th editing pass, you’re going to be a little bored and start adding things anyway, to keep you interested. But if it isn’t finished, then finish the story first. Get it out and on paper. Then you can decide what to do with it. If it still ends up being short, then contact TOR and see if they’re interested. They publish a lot of shorter fiction in sci-fi/fantasy genres. There’s other publishing houses out there too. If you have a compelling story, it doesn’t matter how short it is.

      I actually have a whole article written on this topic: https://writefarmlive.com/2017/01/noveling-101-word-count/

      Finish the draft, edit the crap out of it (with some focus on making it more complex if you want a longer story), then find the right publisher for your book. Just my thoughts.

      • Hi Martin, thanks for adding your two cents 🙂 Thanks for your information on writing shorter fiction and where to pitch this content. I write primarily from a traditional book publishing perspective, so the focus is narrowed to that market, but of course there are plenty of other avenues to go down. Writing comps are always a great way to get ‘seen’, my first ever published piece was for an anthology – it was a wonderful experience! Thanks for your info about copyright law also, I am always a little tentative on this area and never want to provide black and white feedback! And finally, I couldn’t agree more with your final point about writing the story first and editing… and editing… and editing your MS before worrying about word count. Word counts are merely a guide, to know where your general parameters are in terms of traditional publishing. I recently had a submission that was 400,000 words for one book…I think it’s safe to say that that author needed to pay a little more attention to ‘parameters’ 🙂 Cheers, Kit

  6. I appreciated your information on word count and novel length, particularly since you broke it down by genre. Several years ago, my son wrote a short story that I found to be very good, as did many of his teachers. I suggested he turn it into a novel, which he did. Technically, it is a suspense/murder mystery, but the main characters are the age he was when he wrote the original short story (it only works if they remain that age). However, it doesn’t read as a YA novel, despite being about a seventeen-year-old boy and his friends.

    The last time my son worked on the novel, he was almost twenty. For the past almost two years, I have been editing and proof reading it, in the hopes of submitting it for publication (with self e-publishing as a fall-back option). Because the novel has basically doubled in length under my efforts, we now consider that we are co-writers of the novel. He had the idea, the plot, the characters, but I’m the one that cleaned up the dialogue and fleshed it out (perhaps too much).

    The problem is this: What started out as a 5500 word short story became a 30,000 word novella, and after my first “edit” to flesh it out, it became a lumbering epic of biblical proportions: 200,000+ words. On subsequent edits, I was able to cut it back to 145,000 words, but it seems “stuck” there.

    I’ve handed out copies to friends, asking them to proof read it and give honest opinions as to content and length, and they all seem to blow through the thing very quickly, and none have found the length to be overwhelming. They are, however, very good friends, and might just not want to hurt our feelings.

    The book does contain a major “twist” in it, which could, with additional editing, become a breaking point, turning it into two novels (the original, and a sequel.) But the nature of the “twist” might lose a lot of the punch if we did that. About half-way through, the reader is lead to believe the mystery has been solved, as does the hero. But it turns out, everyone is wrong, as is discovered in the second half of the book. Would there be an audience for such a thing as a single book, with basically a single plot, being broke into two books? The first book would seem to have a satisfying ending and resolution, but the second book would show that that was not the case, and basically pick up where the first left off, furthering the same plot and characters to the final (and correct) ending.

    If I could do this, then I could add back a little of what I cut out that I wish I had not had to lose, making each novel roughly 85,000 words. Has this ever been done before? I’m not talking about a proper sequel, where the next book has the same characters, but a different story. It would be a continuation of the same story.

    Or should we just forego any hope of publication and go the e-book route?

    • Hi Kathy,
      Thanks for your message. Breaking a manuscript into two is not unheard of, however it is hard to offer firm advice until I have seen the manuscript. Some manuscripts have an obvious point where it could be ‘broken’ while still leaving the reader fulfilled and also offering enough fulfilling content for the sequel. My advice to you would be to have a professional appraisal of the manuscript – particularly after its lengthy gestation and also after the involvement of two authors. An appraisal would give you a greater sense of where the MS is placed and how to move it forward. I don’t usually ‘sell’ my services in these comments, but it does sound like your MS could do with some objective feedback.
      Please feel free to email or call me if you wish to discuss this further, I’d be happy to chat.

      • Thank you for your response. As it happens, I like the idea of having someone that does not know me, or my son, read and appraise the manuscript, and will probably avail myself of your services. However, after writing my initial inquiry, I felt compelled to put my editing cap back on, and I am seeing the manuscript through “fresh” eyes. I think I understand that the reason I go into such detail is because I don’t trust the imagination of the reader to get them to the right place. I need to get over that. And there are too many inconsistencies from too many previous edits that took place too close together (making it difficult for me to remember what had been removed/changed/added, and when). So after I go through it one more time, I will be contacting you again to make arrangements for an appraisal. (My son will also be verifying HIS “voice” is still front and center). Hopefully, the word count will DROP, not rise. (Fingers crossed).

        Thank you.

  7. Hi Kit,

    Thanks so much on your advice! I am in the process of writing my first novel as well and have noticed I am continuously have ideas generating throughout my writing process. My novel is a thriller (my main area of interest) and I’m already more than halfway through! I just wanted to ask if your agency or any other agencies specifically seek novels of the thriller genre.

    Also, having been a fan of the thriller genre from a young age, I was wondering what are the general warning signs when you sift through manuscripts, specifically thriller types, that alert you to not go ahead with? I have circulated my novel with very few family members and they have showered me with positive thoughts on my writing so far (starting to think they maybe be biased!)



    • Hi Jamaine,
      Well done on picking up the figurative pen and starting your first novel 🙂 We have developmental editors across many genres of writing. However, at this stage, we don’t act as agents so I cannot give you a concrete response to your query. In terms of warning signs, most agents and publishers will only read the synopsis/cover letter in the first instance, before requesting a sample of the manuscript (if they feel it is worthwhile pursuing). I would advise making the synopsis/cover letter the best they can be in order to gain the right attention from an agent or publisher. I would also make sure I read the guidelines of that particular publisher/agent to ensure I was submitting my work according to their requirements. After that I would ensure that the sample chapters I submitted had been carefully edited and checked for typos and formatting issues. Those sample chapters should really grab the reader, so make sure your opening isn’t dull – give them a taste of something that they want to keep tasting! Writing teachers often advise cutting the first few paragraphs for the final version so that the reader is thrown into the action, I think this is often rather good advice in the self-editing process. As you are aware, a novel (thriller or otherwise) is a complex beast and requires the right balance and nuance in terms of plot, character, prose style etc. There is no set equation for what works and what doesn’t, if there was then my agency wouldn’t exist! We approach each manuscript differently and appraise it on its own merits and shortcomings. Objective feedback is a great asset in writing, and unfortunately this can rarely come from friends and family. Once you have completed your manuscript I would advise approaching an appraiser/assessor (my agency or otherwise) to get some objective, professional advice.
      I hope this feedback is useful.
      All the best with your writing!

      • Hi Kit,

        Thanks so much! The information you gave me has been most helpful! It definitely has given me a clearer understanding and now I am motivated more than ever to get my first draft done.

        Thanks again! 🙂

    • Hi Joe,
      I couldn’t agree more. The story comes first. The word count comes into play once you start editing your own work, and also important to keep in mind when submitting your work to any ‘professionals’.
      Thanks for your input 🙂

  8. Howdy and hello,

    I wrote for nautical magazines for many years, usually related to marine salvage and rescue, tugboats, commercial diving, and commercial fishing. Getting paid was easy, with pay-rates up to $2/word in the 1970’s. For years I could go to any magazine stand in America, during almost any month, and find my work displayed in one or several publications. Life was good. I also wrote for aviation magazines (but getting paid was difficult) and for equine magazines (but getting paid was nearly impossible and lots of work was stolen and printed without permission).

    I have a completed manuscript available which is a compilation of non-fiction sea stories (salvage and rescue) told from the perspective of personal recollections, being trapped beneath a large sunken longliner in hard-hat diving gear for about 12 hours. Threaded through the text are my experiences being married for forty years to a woman who wasn’t married for forty years.

    The book is well-written, but the language is intermittently rough and significantly irreverent. It is politically very incorrect, even blasphemous. I don’t follow formulas. I write the story as it exists.

    I know of no other manuscript or approach like this. It will appeal to yachtsmen with commercial aspirations, but not to Sunday sailors. It will appeal to philosophical personalities and to all dreamers of the sea, and fishermen and commercial boat operators, but will be utterly shunned and reviled by the US Coast Guard. It’s a book for the working class, the mechanics and bus and truck drivers, mill workers, machinists, garbage collectors, carpenters, short-order cooks, factory workers…not for snowflakes, yuppies or academics. It’s a book written from the “other” side of boating and it illuminates a lot of warts. It’s for that portion of the population that routinely gets its hands dirty and which is sick to effing death of the PC Police and that working class is, of course, the engine that drives the nation and the world. Everybody else is merely floating on their backs. Without them, for instance, there would be no office chairs to sit in, nor tires on our cars.

    I raised 131 sunken shipwrecks and performed 321 rescues for-hire in the NE Pacific in the 1970’s and 1980’s. Some accounts were published nationally (only 1st US rights sold).

    I do not have an agent as of this writing, though I used Richard Curtis about twenty years ago to market a western novel which didn’t sell because (1) Richard was asking far too much for it and (2) it was “a western”). Richard did try hard though, God Bless him. I think he has passed away. I am seeking an agent at this time.

    I have not received a single response from any agent or publisher over a six month period.

    That’s my experience in book publishing. I have essentially given up.

    I hope others have better luck.

    • To Kit and all:
      I cannot believe there has been no reply to this post. I know nothing about salvage and rescue, but I can imagine it would be a fascinating story. I can even imagine a television series on this theme. I would love to read this book! What could be more exciting than reading a story based on a topic you are unfamiliar with. Would you have to be a sailor to enjoy Moby Dick? Nothing wrong with a book that appeals to the working class. There aren’t enough of those kinds of books. Are we so convinced that John Steinbeck would not sell, if he were trying to publish today? Kit, give this man some encouragement, please.

      • Dear Joy,
        I am afraid Scott’s comment was overlooked in my system. I do aim to respond to every author who writes in to us. Apologies Scott!
        Stories of sea life in any form usually find an audience of sorts, and there are many publishers who take interest in such manuscripts. However, they are also inundated with manuscripts of all walks of life these days, more than ever before, and as a result they require the manuscript to either be written by someone of repute (a magazine writer might help, but isn’t always enough to get the manuscript over the line), supremely well-written, or have a hook that hasn’t yet been covered by other published titles…or all three and more!
        Publishing opportunities also rely heavily on timing – when you submit your manuscript, who you submit it to, what is going on in the wider social sphere etc. You might have a brilliant manuscript, but the agent or publisher may already have acquired something similar recently which means that they cannot acquire a similar title – they wouldn’t want the conflict. Publishing is about ensuring your manuscript is the best it can be…and it’s about perseverance also. It’s tough.
        If you feel that your MS is different to all else on the shelf, that can be wonderful…but it can also be scary for publishers these days because there is no proof that something like it will sell. The publishing sphere is a different place than it was 20+ years ago; less risks are being taken. If your manuscript is different to the norm, that’s fine, but I would advise that you enlist outside help to ensure your manuscript is really doing all that you set out to do. With memoir-type writing it can be hard to know what you have related on paper, and what is still floating about in your head. And external reader can help you with this, and also help you with the overall structure, as well as the sentence-level errors etc.
        I should also mention that six months in publishing isn’t really a long time. Some novels take years to find a publishing place.
        All the best with finding an agent or publisher, it can be a gruelling process for many authors. But don’t give up!
        Take care,

  9. Hi Kit

    Your article is very helpful, however I was hoping you might be able to help me with a specific question. I used to weigh over 180kg and in the last 6 years I finally managed to win the weight battle and lose 100kg. I am in the process of writing a book about my story and will also include tips and things that I have learned over the course of my journey in the hopes that it helps others who are trying to lose weight. So I guess it is also a self help book. I am currently at about 12,500 words and probably half way through if I were to guess. Is 25000 words too short for this kind of book, or is shorter better in this case? Any advice would be greatly appreciated!



    • Hello Shari,

      Well done on the weight loss, I am certain it took a lot of determination, resilience and emotional resolve to lose 100kg. It is no small task, so a huge amount of respect goes to you for this!
      In terms of self-help titles, there is no hard and fast rule about word length as the content can vary so much and the audience expectations of this content varies also. I would start by looking in bookshops (or on Amazon) and looking at comparative titles to see how long they are. I would also sit down and have a think about what I would have wanted to read when I was starting out/going through the weight loss journey. It also depends on whether you are self-publishing or seeking traditional publishing. You can get away with a lot more in self-publishing (although, I’d still advise looking at comparative titles and what the best sellers are doing). Traditional publishers might be happy to look over what you already have (along with a strong synopsis and covering letter) and view it as a framework for what they could develop the work into.
      It also depends on the content and how this will ultimately be ‘designed’ into the spreads that make up the book. For instance, do you include recipes, exercise regimes etc? These inclusions may take up more space in the book and ‘bulk it out’. I feel a good designer/editor team working on a self-help book can make all the difference, because they will be able to design/arrange your words into a more accessible format (ie tips and hints boxes, as just one example).
      I am afraid it is tricky to provide concrete advice on certain genres, because there are so many variables.

      Good luck!

  10. Good evening. I have been rather forthright in my search of the Internet this last couple of weeks in search of guidelines regarding word counts. I’ve been writing for quite a long time, working on several different books but never engaging in one to an extent that it looks near completion. However, after talking about writing a full book for six or seven years, I’ve finally taken the plunge and started a new one the day before yesterday. I would hazard a guess and state that word counts will be no problem for me as i have always been somewhat of a day dreamer. However, my query merely rests upon one question if I may?

    Oft I’ve found when writing either for enjoyment or academics (assignments and the like), I’ve never had to edit, re-write or re-draft any of my work. Mayhap it’s silly on my part to some extent, but I was curious if in the experience of yourself and/or your peers, the concept of writing something out in full and requiring little or no change has ever come to pass?

    I’m due to hit 31 this year, and when lamenting on times past, it seems absolutely idiotic of me to have been working on writing books since 24 years of age, but never having done anything about finishing them.

    My curiosity compels me now to query such as its fast becoming clearer that the old proverb of Tempus Fugit tells no lies.

    Your article was very informative, and revealed the exact information I have been searching for, and thankfully falls in line with other sources I have stumbled across. Many thanks indeed!

    • Hi Steven,
      Thanks for your comment. I would always suggest writing your manuscript in the first instance and then considering the word count after you have redrafted your work several times, through self-editing. It is a rare occurrence for me to find an author who needs little to no editing, either self-editing or editing from an external editor. I think any writing can be improved upon from its first drafting – particularly with manuscripts. It’s a big ask to get the plot ‘just so’ in the first instance, as well as have all the other elements working well at this stage. In fact, I think the magic really happens when you edit and start adding the layers.
      I often think writing is like creating a painting (or a sculpture): first you get the basic shapes on the page (you could stop at this point and you would have some semblance of an image), then you walk away for a while and let the paint dry, when you come back you start adding colours, blending the different shapes so that they create a cohesive ‘whole’ image, then you leave it awhile longer… the painting looks pretty good at this point and you could probably leave it, but you return to it and start adding more depth with details. I suppose it’s a little like ‘the glass being full of marbles, but not really full’ scenario. Your manuscript might look finished after the first draft, but then you add the sand (to the jar) and you realise there were so many gaps you didn’t see at first… then you add the water and you realise that although the jar looked full, it wasn’t at all. Writing is a series of layers, adding more depth, taking out aspects that detract from the narrative, seeing where your plot can be refined. I just don’t feel you can achieve this after writing one draft.
      The beautiful thing about being a writer is that life, age and experience all work together to help us become better at the craft. It is a job that many get better at as we get older and wiser. And although its a very solitary pursuit, our work often only reaches the pinnacle when we work collaboratively with others (ie editors), who can see our work objectively and help to shine the light in the right places in our manuscripts.
      I hope this helps to answer your query.

  11. Hi Kit,

    I am writing a fantacy for 13 – 130 years and was reading through earlier comments from writers/yourself above. Thanks for some great ideas. Are you suggesting that when i am ready to submit, i need to also submit a synopsis/cover letter to sell my book to the editors before they actually read my book to “sell to marketing?”

    If so, must this cover letter be a short story of your book or what info will the editors require to take note of your book?

  12. hello!

    I am currently trying to find a reviewer for a thesis i have written at University and turned it into a book to be published on “Tourism” i have received patent for the book but i cannot find a reviewer yet! if anyone could help 🙂

    Another thing i am currently working on writing a book “motivational and inspirational” type of book, what advice can i get regarding word counts/number of pages/ make it stand out in the market

    Would appreciate your answers

    • Hi Sarah, Thanks for visiting our blog. In terms of a reviewer, what are you wanting to achieve? What kind of reviewer are you looking for? Are you looking to self-publish or seek out traditional publishing?
      In terms of word count for your other book, it’s impossible to say without knowing more about what you are actually writing, who your audience is, why you think they might pick it up…all these questions will have a bearing on the length that you ultimately aim for. Will it be illustrated, or is it more of an educational/instructional manual? I would suggest writing a framework of what you want to include, and then consider the audience you wish to target, then see what the current competition is in that market. Then you will have more of an idea of what that audience expects, and also how to stand out from what is already in the market. Understanding who you are writing for and what you wish to write about is the first port of call though. Good luck! Kit

  13. Thank you for this article. I have a question, I recently re-edited my novel from 80,000 words to 94,000 words. I didn’t realize I added 13,000 words to my manuscript. Is this okay for a Young Adult coming of age story or should I start cutting?


    • Hi Mira, I think it’s more important to consider whether the additional content you adds value to the manuscript in general. The word count is just a guide and it can help you to be more succinct/or tight in your telling of the story. If you feel that everything included is worthy of its place within the MS, then I wouldn’t worry about the word count too much. The content always comes first, make sure that is as ‘right’ as it can be before worrying about the length of the MS. But certainly be aware that word lengths are in place for a reason, and it’s good to keep them in mind. I am sorry, I know that’s a bit cryptic, but it’s hard to tell you categorically if your MS is too long, because it’s never based on word count alone. I hope this makes sense! Let me know if you have any further questions I can help with. Cheers, Kit

  14. 1. The yellow headers on the white background in this article are hard on the eyes.
    2. The content of the article is excellent. Thank you for not just throwing facts, but also providing context and reasoning.
    3. I’d like to say this for people over the word count that suspect they may have to shorten their work. If you can break your book down into a query, then it’s that much easier to break a chapter down into a query. If you can do that and blend that chapter query into a different chapter then you’ve saved thousands of words. It’s even easier if you pick on chapters with fewer characters and less plot content. The tough part is which chapter do you pick…

  15. Pingback: Set Goals (however lofty) | Jette Harris

  16. I started off writing a short story. I honestly don’t expect to get it published as it violates most publishers code of ethics. It makes 50 shadows look like the little merman and has bad violence but I’m not against it, just doubtful. My second story is only 8000 words and I’ve just barely begun the story. I’m very descriptive and see this being a very convoluted yet understandable story. My question is, how would I find out if someone would be interested in publishing these books before I put tons of money into editing as these are the very first ones I’ve ever written and have no clue if they are worth even reading much less marketable. I’d like to see them in print but don’t want to waste others time and/or money.

    • Hi Steven, It is a tough question. I would suggest focussing on one MS and finessing that. Then I would consider working with an appraisal agency, such as mine to get some independent, professional feedback. You can also have ‘partial completion’ appraisals, however I advise having a completed MS appraised for the best results. It is impossible to know if it is worth the time and money, to be honest. You really have to do it because you love it. The best manuscripts can be overlooked for years, simply because the audience they are pitching at is not ready for their work, or they find they have competing titles on their desk at that time. Timing, perseverance, good writing, excellent plots, intriguing/informative cover letters and synopses…all these and more add up to potential success. And even then, it’s still only potential. I wish I could offer more concrete feedback, but at the end of the day it’s a tough industry and those who succeed do so for so many different reasons: great MS, right place at the right time etc. Alternatively, if you love the story you are writing, but feel that the timing is not right for publishing houses then you might consider self-publishing…after all, the author of ’50 Shades of Grey’ self-published in the first instance!

  17. Pingback: Writing a Query Letter: Part 3 – S.E. White Author

  18. This article was really useful, thank you. I’ve just published a non-fiction book at 44,000 words and am now in the process of planning out my first fiction book, hopefully about 60,000+ words.

    It was really interesting to read your publisher tips as well and the expectations of “the authorities”

  19. Thank you so much for writing this, I have been looking for a clear article like this for a long time!

    I am just reaching the end of my novel, and it is just under 60,000 words. It is teen fiction, meant roughly for 13-16 year old, perhaps younger.

    I am very happy with my story, however I do have a slight problem. I am quite young, and still only at secondary school, and I do wonder whether it will be possible for a young author to get a book published?

    I have looked into this as much as possible, but I haven’t found anything yet that might suggest an answer. Is it possible for a young girl to get her novel published, or will publishers and agents be put off by my age?

    Thank you so much again for the article, it has been a great help.


    • Hi Jessica,
      Well done on completing your manuscript – many adults never achieve this!
      I feel you could do one of two things when submitting your work for publication or to agents: you could choose to own up to your age and cite it as an advantage because you understand the demographic you are writing for, or simply make no initial reference to your age and let your work speak for itself. Your manuscript should do all the ‘talking’ for you anyway. If/when you do get ‘picked up’ then you will obviously need to address your age. The main issue a publisher will be concerned with is whether you are in a position to market your own book – ie do the author circuits and speaking tours etc. In fact, your age could actually be an interesting selling point for your book – a teen fiction, written by a teen.
      Either way, your work needs to speak for itself and be able to do the selling, so I would suggest that you ensure that the manuscript you submit is the best version of itself that it possibly can be – this means asking someone (who is not your family or friends) to look at it critically. There are obviously paid services for this sort of thing (like my agency), but you might have a supportive English teacher who would be willing to cast a critical eye over it. Make sure you also try to eradicate all spelling and grammar issues – you don’t want anything to distract the editor/publisher/agent from the merits of your narrative.
      I wish you all the best with your quest for publication!! And well done on writing this manuscript in the first place – even if this isn’t the manuscript that finds publication, it will serve as a great lesson for your future writing endeavours.
      Take care,

  20. Oh hi there! I was looking for a bit of reassurance about a novel I am currently writing. As it is progressing, I am noticing that it is becoming increasingly dark in tone and the subject matter involves some pretty dark stuff as well (e.g. prostitution and drug use). Obviously, there’s far more to the characters and the plot than just the depressing stuff but even so I wanted your honest opinion on whether or not you think that the novel being so dark and contemporary will harm its chances of ever getting published. I hope not- it’s my first novel and means a lot to me.
    Thanks in advance. Also, thank you for the helpful article too.

    • Hi Chloe, I would love to provide you concrete feedback to your query, however it is hard to say until I read the MS. What I can say though is that audiences are much more open to being challenged by dark material than they once were. However, the delivery of the material would determine how it might be received. The content and the delivery go hand-in-hand. If you would like to email me, I’d be happy to chat further 🙂 All the best, Kit

  21. I’m currently completing my final year in high school and have started writing a tragic romance novel, but because there is a lot of legal matters that come into play later on in the plot, I’m a bit unsure as what genre it would ultimately fall under. At the moment there are just over 22,000 words, and not even a quarter of a way through the storyline.

    • Hi Nadia,
      I wouldn’t worry too much about genre at the moment. Just focus on writing the manuscript. You can work out genre details later, and tweak the MS, if necessary. Once you have completed the first few drafts you will get a better sense of what it might be. Happy writing!

  22. I’m almost finished the first draft of a story that’s been pretty important to me for over two years now, but I’m nervous about how it might be received by publishers and readers.

    It doesn’t come from a very popular genre. In fact it’s extremely niche. All I want is to be able to share my story in a tangible form. This novel is very important to me. I know exactly how it’s going to end, it has undergone multiple complete narrative reworks in the planning stage. It’s Genre has changed since its conception, and I have re-written the plan for the ending alone eight times at least.

    But I have no idea how marketable it is. Many people I have talked to about it are interested in reading it but the sample group of people I’d encounter would be skewed.

    I’d like to know if it’s possible to publish something with little mainstream appeal without having to self-publish, and if so, is there anything I can do to help my chances?

    I’m very young (fresh out of high school to be exact) and don’t really know what I’m doing at all to tell you the truth. All I know is that I want to make this story as engaging and polished as it can possibly be, and I want to one day see someone else holding it in their hands.

  23. Great article, now I know where I went wrong. My novel, which originally started out to be a boy beats girl romantic thriller based on true events, finished up by being an erotic thriller with a 165,000-word count. After reading your article, I now understand why I haven’t heard back from publishers. The word count is too high, especially for a first-time writer. Although initially I was very excited when I was accepted by a publisher, and even signed a contract, unfortunately, they went into liquidation just before printing. So my question to you is this, with a little adjustment my story can easily be presented as two books with a word count of roughly 80,000-word each. Now, how do I write my synopsis? Do I write it describing the first book only, or do I write it incorporating both.

    • Hello Brian,
      Well done on completing your manuscript, and also for the publishing opportunity!!
      In writing your synopsis, you should be able to write one for each manuscript + an overview synopsis for the ‘series’ (which tackles the main events for each book clearly and separately so that the publisher knows what to expect from each MS). Each manuscript needs to be able to stand alone and be a complete MS in and of itself – so that the reader finishes the book feeling satisfied (that doesn’t mean you can’t end with a hook of sorts, to lure them into reading the next MS!), so you should be able to write a synopsis that satisfies the publisher’s expectations. I assume you would be submitting your MS as a series, so then you would submit the overview synopsis (and perhaps the extended single-book synopses also, on request). Does that all make sense? Please do feel free to call or email me and we can chat further about this.
      All the best,

      Also, I assume you meant to write ‘boy meets girl’? Make sure you edit this in any cover letter you submit… I am not sure publishers want manuscripts about boys beating girls…

  24. I’m currently writing a sci-fi novel though I don’t really care about word count, so far the totals are…

    57,462 words

    310,157 characters

    In Libre Office if that matters.

    It’s not even remotely finished, not even close to the middle of the novel. It’s well thick reading, but not cause I’m aiming for that it’s just because of the flow. Wouldn’t be surprised if it surpassed the 100k mark and I’m not even in a hurry to finish it, I have it all worked out in my head.

    • Hi Nate,
      In the writing phase I wouldn’t be too worried about the word count either. It’s good to have an idea of word counts for when you start the self-editing process as it can be really helpful in focussing your content more effectively. The writing phase is all about words on the page; plot, narrative development, character development, world-building. It’s okay to completely blow a word count at this stage. But hopefully the word count ‘guidelines’ will help you to understand what audiences (and publishers) generally seek in the genre they pick up to read. Word counts are really useful to help authors really tighten up their narrative and dust off the waffle from their narrative 🙂
      All the best with the writing!

  25. Hi, I have completed my first novel, the first in a series, and I am currently in the process of revising it. It is a YA fantasy/sci-fi novel, since you mentioned that there is some flexibility, I was wondering what you would typically recommend to be the maximum for this subgenre so I can have a good guideline of what I need to try to do?

    • Hello there,
      I am afraid for this genre it is not as hard and fast as offering a set word count limit for YA fantasy/sci-fi. I would need to see your MS to be able to provide manuscript-specific feedback. It all depends on the world building, the narrative development, plot development, character establishment, series establishment, writing style etc. I would be happy to chat more if you would like to email me at kit@manuscriptagency.com.au.

  26. Hi kit,
    Not sure if you would follow up on this but thanks a lot, your article has taught me a lot. And to be honest I learnt more from the comments section. I love writing myself but not sure if my writing is good enough (my english). I am working on a fiction novel and my autobiography (am just 29 by the way). I am halfway on both the books. I would like you to take a look at my sample writings on my blog and review my writing style and my grab on english. it would mean a lot. thanks

  27. Hello,
    I’m a teenager and am writing a book. It’s currently above 11K words, but I’m really only 1/3 of the way through. I’m expecting it to end up being about 35,000 words. I like to keep my books short and sweet. The problem is…. is 35K too small of a book for publishers to even consider? I guess this would be a “novella”… Also, will they require my age? If publishers look and see, oh it’s a 35K word book my a 13 – year – old, will they even care?

    • Dear Christine,
      At this point of writing I would be concentrating on the writing itself and not worrying one bit about the word count. The word count will change as you write and edit your work. Focus on getting the narrative structure working and make sure your characters are doing their job first, before worrying about length. Only once you’ve written the MS, and then rewritten it, will you need to think about the length of the MS.
      In terms of your age, it is hard to say. I would be inclined to let your work speak for itself in the first instance. Once it has done that then your age could come into play. A young writer, such as yourself, can be a good selling point for publishers!
      Well done on being so proactive in your writing!
      All the best,

  28. Good Evening,
    I am just about finished writing a short book that is set to a fantasy/romance style. I am curious, it is set around the lives of several average teenagers, and touches on many issues they face today. I am currently at 26k words and am running into writers block. In your opinion, would a publisher even consider a 26k word first novella? Or should I try to continue to expand the story. Also, I was wondering how I could get someone to look it over to see if it’s any good. I mean my target audience is the average teen. What would you recommend?
    Thank you

    • Hello Noel,
      I hope the writers’ block has lifted a little for you. I would focus on ensuring your manuscript was complete, with a sufficient beginning, middle and end – and with all the necessary developments in plot and character – before even considering the word count. In terms of garnering feedback, there are professionals like us who deal in providing feedback. But there are also lots of beta readers out there and writing groups where you can gather feedback on your writing – this is especially helpful in the early days of writing.
      Thanks for touching base.

  29. I currently have a 26,000 would book definitely need an editor I was told I only needed 40,000 words and now that has changed a need about 55,000 I had the whole ending planned out drawn out and now I need to add an extra 15,000 words to that Might just go into self publishing that way I can have it published either way

    • Hi Joe,
      I would focus on the content of the manuscript and the development of the narrative before considering the word count. It is good to keep in mind, but better to think about it in the self-editing phase. Don’t let the word count dampen your spirits!
      All the best,

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